As hydro dams and logging change Borneo, Dateline asks if locals are being treated fairly and questions the connection with Tasmania.
PART ONE: THE DAMNED
REPORTER: David O'Shea
controversial Bakun Dam is one of the largest concrete-faced,
rock-filled dams in the world. When the water poured in late last year,
it flooded almost 700 square kilometres - an area the size of Singapore.
Much of it is hundreds of metres deep.
I join a group heading back to
the place they were born at the far end of the dam, on what used to be
the Ranjang River. It's a four-hour journey to Long Jawe and along the
way we pass many picturesque villages, it's just that they're hundreds
of metres below us.
LIAN NGAU (Translation): The land
looks low now because the river is so high. They look like hills now,
but they used to be mountains.
Dam is only the beginning. The state government, working in consultancy with Hydro
Tasmania, is embarking on one of the most ambitious plans in the history
of hydropower. It wants to build 12 dams like this one - flooding
vast tracts of river valley land - and displacing tens of thousands of
indigenous people. Those who have already lost their land and their
homes have nothing but contempt for the project. Lian Ngau tells me he
was given less than half the land he was promised by the government.
NGAU (Translation): The government said "œIf you go there we'll give
each household seven acres of land." In the end they only gave us three
acres. So where are the other four acres? That's not the way to manage
development. To this day they still haven't given us the title deeds
for our three acres.
Former Senator Idris Buang is a spokesman for the Sarawak Energy Board, which buys power from the dams.
Some of the people I've spoken to that were relocated from Bakun Dam
and are now living in Sungai Asap, complained that they didn't receive
the amount of compensation that they were promised.
IDRIS BUANG, SARAWAK ENERGY BOARD: They ought to receive unless something had happened along the way.
REPORTER: What might have happened?
IDRIS BUANG: But.. I wouldn't know - some administrative sort of;
hitch probably. But nevertheless, they ought to be compensated. It
would be illegal, actually, if they're not.
BROWN, JOURNALIST: Billions have been generated out of the Bakun Dam -
billions - and it's a small population. They have been given a very meagre
slice of the profits.
Rewcastle Brown is an investigative journalist who writes a blog called
the 'Sarawak Report'. She says Hydro Tasmania is not working to its own
standards because their contract partner does not comply with its
CLARE REWCASTLE BROWN: The local people still don't know where they
are going to be moved to when they are flooded out of their homes.
No-one's been consulted. No-one's been told anything. How can this
equate to the highest benchmark of corporate and social responsibility?
IDRIS BUANG: I think you can rest
assured that the state government is very, very serious in considering
the fate of the people affected. The government is very concerned in
terms of giving them restitution, compensatory in nature, although they
cannot get the very thing that they lost, but at least they'll be put
into a better position than before. Economically, socially.
The government says the dams will eventually generate enormous power and will lead to job opportunities for all.
IDRIS BUANG: In 2020, we are poised to create more than a million jobs. In 2030, it is more than two million jobs.
Hydro Tasmania is providing consultancy services.
ADAIR, CEO, HYDRO TASMANIA: We are delighted to be working with an
organisation that values the sustainable development of hydropower. We
are delighted to be working with what is one of the major opportunities
in the world for the careful development of 20 gigawatts of capacity,
which is a significant volume of capacity, which will fundamentally
change the economic base of Sarawak.
IDRIS BUANG: A win-win situation.
The Sarawak Energy Board, or SEB, are also delighted.
IDRIS BUANG: We get expertise, we get guidance, we get 100 years of experience from Tasmania, for example.
REPORTER: Does it also give you an image boost, does it improve your public relations to have Hydro Tasmania involved?
IDRIS BUANG: Well, if there's any image boost, it just comes naturally, but that is not our intention.
Chairman of the SEB is Hamed Sepawi. He's also the Chairman of the
giant timber group, Ta Ann. Each company has entered into a separate
BOB BROWN, ENVIRONMENTAL
CAMPAIGNER: There's a very worrying relationship between the exploiters
of Tasmania and the exploiters of Sarawak. Whether it's forests or
whether it's damming wild and magnificent rivers.
REPORTER: You're not concerned by the persistent allegations that swirl around SEB?
ADAIR: I can only speak on what we have found. I have found them to be
a first-class professional outfit. They deal with the best standards of
doing business. They have the highest standards of safety and
sustainability very much at the heart of what they are doing.
CLARE REWCASTLE BROWN: It's like a sort of James Bond megalomaniac vision.
Brown happens to be the sister-in-law of the former British Prime
Minister, Gordon Brown. She's a very vocal critic of the whole system of
governance and accountability in Sarawak.
BROWN: You can have the development argument, that's fair enough, but
this hasn't been about development and progress for the people of
Sarawak - it's been about money siphoned out into foreign bank accounts.
As the valley flooded, the
villagers cut sections off the longhouse and wedged trees underneath.
When the waters rose, so did the structures.
INGKONG LIAN (Translation): This is the kitchen, the longhouse went under, we raised the kitchen.
REPORTER (Translation): The longhouse;
LIAN NGAU (Translation): We couldn't raise it.
REPORTER (Translation): It was too big?
LIAN NGAU (Translation): Yes, it was. The pillars were big.
Today they're moving what's left of their house, a couple of hundred metres across the lake.
REPORTER (Translation): Why are you moving?
LIAN (Translation): We are looking for somewhere where the water's
deeper. If the water level drops it will tilt. If the level drops, it
LIAN NGAU (Translation): It's a miserable life.
There's no longhouse so we're not together any more. We're scattered all
around here. If we want to have a meeting, we have to use a boat to get
from one house to the next.
It's the fate of the church which really upsets him.
NGAU (Translation): Seeing the condition of the church, I feel very
sad, now it's like this. Even though we were able to raise it, I still
feel sad when I look at it.
though the government built them their new longhouse, they say the
construction is substandard and the location doesn't provide a
livelihood. And as the years pass by, memories of their old village on
the river are fading.
LIAN NGAU (Translation): Is this the house on top of the hill? Which one's the church? Is this the church?
WOMAN (Translation): All that red roofing is our old longhouse. Our home is here.
MAN (Translation): It used to be a good life, it was good upriver.
BROWN: It's the end of their universe, it's the end of their history,
it's the end of their culture. It's the end of their way of life and
productivity and raising their kids and telling them about their
grandparents and what happened before. All that.
retired Greens Leader Bob Brown is disturbed that Hydro Tasmania has
played a role in this by providing consulting services.
BROWN: Which engineer in Hydro Tasmania is going to understand what it
means to an indigenous person in Sarawak to have their whole life and
history obliterated by a huge concrete dam?
his first visit this far up Bakun Dam, Philip Jau is horrified by what
he sees. He's from the Baram River, next on Sarawak's list to dam.
PHILIP JAU: They just
want to take our land, to destroy us, destroy our future, the future of
our children, drown our land, drown our forests, drown our rivers.
CROWD: Stop the dam! Stop the dam!
He's been leading protests against the Baram Dam, but is understandably worried that no-one is listening.
JAU: I've travelled and I've visited and I've talked to the people in
all the houses to be affected. They all don't want this bloody dam. So
the government must listen to the people and stop, and cancel, scrap
this bloody stupid Baram Dam.
CROWD: Stop the dam!
directs his anger at the foreigners with the Sarawak Energy Board - the
Tasmanians and the Norwegian CEO, who is on a salary package of more
than $4 million per year.
PHILIP JAU: You have no right.
You are a foreigner. You have no right to speak for the people. You
only come to Long Na'ah for three days and you say the majority of the
people want the dam. This is stupid. You are lying. You get out of this
state of Sarawak. Don't ever come to Baram. You are saying nonsense.
You are saying a blatant lie. You are not telling the truth. I am from
Baram. I know what the people feel. You get out of Baram.
REPORTER: They claim that there was no consultation with the local people on Baram...
IDRIS BUANG: As I said, it's underway. The process is being conducted now. There's nothing complete yet.
REPORTER: When will construction of Baram begin?
IDRIS BUANG: Well...
exact detail, he needs to consult a Tasmanian, who appears to know much
more than the people about to be flooded from their homes.
IDRIS BUANG: 2014.
Clare Rewcastle Brown says it's unacceptable for a Tasmanian public company to be getting involved in this.
REWCASTLE BROWN: Where's the accountability? Where's the consultation?
Where are the environmental impact assessments? These things should be
bread and butter for a company that abides by the highest standards.
IDRIS BUANG: Right now, feasibility studies are being done and social, environmental impact are underway.
REPORTER: There is nothing that is going to stop that, is that right?
IDRIS BUANG: As it is, it has to go on. As I said the need to have all
these dams that we planned for, overrides any other thing, you know, in
the interest of the greater good of Sarawakians.
There is a secrecy at the top levels of state in Tasmania and in Sarawak
about what is going on. The people don't know. They don't know who's
getting the money. They don't know who's wielding the influence and they
don't know in either place what the plans are for the future. They
should know, because they'd be worried if they did know.
KIM BOOTH MP, GREENS MEMBER FOR BASS: Mr Speaker, my question is to the Minister of Energy.
In Tasmania, Brown's former colleagues are searching for answers too.
BOOTH MP: Minister; As Shareholder Minister for Hydro Tasmania, you
would be aware that I have made a right to information application
seeking information about the work...
Kim Booth has asked several questions in parliament about the Hydro Tasmania deal with the Sarawak Energy Board.
KIM BOOTH MP: You would also be aware that Hydro Tasmania refused to release any information.
Sarawak Energy Board objected to the release of the information and
Hydro Tasmania deemed the details "œof a commercial and financial nature"
which would, if disclosed, "œbe likely to expose Hydro Tasmania to a
was told, however, that the work was "œin accordance with the highest
standards of sustainability and entirely consistent with the values of
KIM BOOTH MP: Whilst this is reassuring,
Minister, it is relatively meaningless given that he did not also
provide detail on how these values are assessed and weighed up against
the risk of undertaking work in politically unstable places like
Sarawak, on projects that have displaced thousands of indigenous people.
fact they're blocking normal requests under access for right to
information. It's being blocked by Hydro Tasmania for no apparent good
Rewcastle Brown is critical of what she says is a disturbing lack of accountability.
REWCASTLE BROWN: They would never get away with that in a project in
Australia. Why is it okay to do it here in Borneo? They are ruining one
of the most precious environments left on our planet. That's why we
PART TWO: LOGGED OUT?
REPORTER: David O'Shea
The battle over the Tasmanian wilderness has stirred passions on both sides for decades.
JENNY WEBER, ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVIST: It's actually an old-growth forest. I wanted to know about what was going on.
WORKER: She's holding me up at the moment. I'm already two hours late.
week in Hobart, inside this building, the so-called Forest Peace Talks
between environmentalists and the logging industry stalled, and with
that, hopes for a solution over what to exploit and what to protect.
Greens have been leading a campaign against the Ta Ann Group of
Companies from Sarawak, whose Australian subsidiary has a contract with
Forestry Tasmania to access timber. It's even brought environmental
warrior, former Senator Bob Brown, out of his recent retirement.
BROWN: Forestry Tasmania is said at the current time to be running at a
loss of some millions of dollars, cutting down forests and giving them
to corporations like Ta Ann to take the wood products elsewhere and make
money. Is that a good deal for Tasmania?
Brown is scathing about Ta Ann, others like Senator Abetz passionately
defend the company, like in the Federal Senate last week.
ERIC ABETZ, LIBERAL, TASMANIA: If the Greens prevail, Ta Ann
Tasmania will fail and jobs lost and trees used for veneering will
simply return to the wood chipper and people in Sarawak will lose their
jobs, all thanks to the Greens.
BOB BROWN: This is a nasty
company which has had the ability to destroy the universe of their
fellow Sarawakians, the indigenous people of Sarawak. Please don't ask
me to sympathise with a company that can do that, then comes to
Tasmania, has not spoken to the people of Tasmania, has not been
involved in the environment debate in Tasmania, but locks in behind
doors with a few senior politicians and loggers and signs a contract to
rip out the wild and scenic ancient forests of Tasmania.
I find that in Sarawak, many share Brown's concerns.
PEE MILLO (Translation): These are our letters.
In the east of the state, I find this community.
PEE MILLO (Translation): The red line shows the boundary of our land.
For six years, they've been fighting a company in which Ta Ann's Chair has invested.
PEE MILLO (Translation): The company is Butrasemari Inc.
company says it was given legal access to this land and they are
currently appealing a High Court ruling against them in favour of the
WOMAN (Translation): They asked to come in,
they wanted to pay us, we refused. They wanted to take our land and give
us very little in return, but we didn't want that.
In 2006, when a bulldozer arrived, 27 families blockaded the access road.
PEE MILLO (Translation): We put a van across the middle of the road so that the company's bulldozers couldn't pass.
After that, thugs came to intimidate them.
MILLO (Translation): There were three cars. We were afraid, seeing so
many thugs turning up. They wanted to fight us and kill us. We resisted
in order to stop them coming in.
They say the company's security guards even turned up with weapons.
PEE MILLO (Translation): Dead or alive, we'll stand our ground. We won't give in to the company. We'll stand our ground.
far away is another longhouse community also in dispute with a company
linked to Ta Ann. They've been given a date to leave, which has just
passed. Their case is still in the High Court, but they say they are
constantly on guard.
JUPITTER (Translation): We're afraid they'll come in without us knowing.
There are a number of companies working in this area which have offices at the same address as Ta Ann Holdings.
JUPITTER (Translation): They were from the company.
REPORTER (Translation): Which company?
(Translation): Butrasemari. No; Butrasemari and also Palmhead. As; the
main company is Ta Ann then Butrasemari and then finally the current
CLARE REWCASTLE BROWN: So how are we for the show today, do you think we've got a full show yet?
RADIO JOURNALIST: We need to know whether we know about the Ta Ann story.
well as the Sarawak Report blog she writes, Clare Rewcastle Brown runs
Radio Free Sarawak, a two-hour daily news program in Iban language
beamed in on short wave from London and produced in this secret
CLARE REWCASTLE BROWN: What about the key story that we're going to do today?
PETER JOHN, JOURNALIST: Ta Ann story?
CLARE REWCASTLE BROWN: Yes, how many interviews did you get up with the village?
PETER JOHN: Quite a lot, actually. The villagers, the longhouse folks, are very angry.
CLARE REWCASTLE BROWN: How can we help them?
of her reporters, the only one prepared to show his face, has just
returned from a remote longhouse community. He says they were stunned to
learn that Ta Ann Holdings had a licence for their land when he showed them a
PETER JOHN: And they were shocked.
CLARE REWCASTLE BROWN: So they had no idea that Ta Ann had permission to log their land?
PETER JOHN: No idea at all, and they were so surprised and some of the women cried and some of the old men were so angry.
CLARE REWCASTLE BROWN: I think we should make a really big package on this.
BIAN, LAWYER: In most cases the native would only realise that the
land had been taken away or been issued out or leased out to foreigners
when they see them walking on the ground.
REPORTER: Once the bulldozers arrive?
BARU BIAN: Exactly.
Baru Bian is famous for a legal test case inspired by Mabo, which set a
precedent for claims on native customary land. His office is looking
into more than 100 land dispute cases, including several against Ta Ann,
who, he says, hides behind interlinked companies to shield itself from
the dirty work.
BARU BIAN: I
believe this is being done, the modus operandi, purely to evade that
direct implication that they are involved directly.
Bian is now an opposition politician and a bitter enemy of the man
ultimately responsible for the way land is used, the Chief Minister of
Sarawak, Taib Mahmud. Taib has ruled for 30 years and while he's not
involved in the company, many people here blame him directly for the
loss of land.
WOMAN (Translation): We don't trust him.
Taib Mahmud cheats people. We supported and voted for him, then he took
away our land and gave our land to the company. Where are we going to
live? Why would we trust him? He's a cheat.
Clare Rewcastle Brown has been raising concerns for years.
REWCASTLE BROWN: The truth is they haven't dared criticise me in a
court of law or indeed particularly openly in any public forum, because
they know I'm right. I've got them bang to rights. There's so much
corruption, it's blatant in Sarawak - nobody denies it.
Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission told Dateline there is an ongoing
investigation into Chief Minister Taib. He's consistently denied all
allegations and he refused Dateline's repeated requests for an
interview. Secret cables published by WikiLeaks show that US diplomats
have their own views.
WIKILEAKS: "œ;his government doles
out timber cutting permits while patrolling the under-developed state
using 14 helicopters, and his family's companies control much of the
One company with
family connections is Ta Ann, producing plywood from Tasmanian eucalypt
here in this factory. Ta Ann's Chairman is the Chief Minister's cousin,
Hamed Sepawi. He's one of the richest men in Malaysia, the result he
says of hard work, not family ties.
HAMED SEPAWI, TA ANN
CHAIRMAN: Just for your information, I guess we have to learn, I keep
saying that the Chief Minister has thousands of cousins.
with Ta Ann's founder and General Manager, KH Wong, they want to
emphasise that they don't take any land from anyone, saying the
company's ethos is to work with local landholders, not to exploit them.
KH WONG, GENERAL MANAGER: We negotiate with them. We settle with them.
Sepawi is also the Chairman of the Sarawak Energy Board, which, as we
learned earlier, is working on hydropower plans with Hydro Tasmania.
REWCASTLE BROWN: There are a lot of questions about the links between
Hamed Sepawi in his role as Chairman of the Sarawak Electricity Board
commissioning Hydro Tasmania to build these dam projects and his role as
the Chairman and Chief Shareholder of Ta Ann.
Tasmania they're already squarely in the sights of the Green groups
hoping to influence Tasmania's forest peace talks. Amongst their
fiercest critics is Jenny Weber, who managed to strike a savage blow to
Ta Ann all the way from Tasmania's Huon Valley.
Ta Ann had been working hard to establish a market in Japan for their Tasmanian-origin, eco-flooring veneer.
HAMED SEPAWI: 70% of this is eucalyptus.
September last year, Weber's Huon Valley Environment Centre released
this devastating report. The report argues there is nothing eco about Ta
Ann's flooring because some of the timber they use comes from high
conservation value old-growth forests.
JENNY WEBER: Tasmania's forest industry own mapping shows that old-growth eco-systems have been logged for Ta Ann.
joined other activists who travelled to Japan to tell Ta Ann's clients
that they believed the flooring product wasn't so eco after all.
WEBER: Ta Ann have proven themselves to be a company that is willing
to misrepresent the source of their timber at an international level,
and so that puts into question what type of company and what their
As a result of her activism, two of their clients cancelled the contract and Ta Ann retrenched 50 Tasmanian workers.
REPORTER: There's not a lot of jobs in Tasmania, surely Ta Ann are bringing much-needed employment to this island?
WEBER: It's not a good enough excuse to have people working in
old-growth eco-systems, destroying those old-growth eco-systems and then
misleading their customers at an international level to sell these
eco-systems as eco-wood. Jobs are not a good enough excuse.
Evan Rolley is Executive Director of Ta Ann Tasmania.
ROLLEY, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, TA ANN TASMANIA: Yes, we have lost up to fifty
per cent of our markets in Japan as a direct result of the actions of
Jenny Weber and Markets for Change, who have spread misinformation and
lies about the company and who have threatened the market that if they
continue to purchase from Tasmania, they would unleash a significant
campaign against the companies using our products. So this effectively
amounts to blackmailing international companies against the use of a
product here in Tasmania.
was head of Forestry Tasmania at the time the deal was done with Ta
Ann. He says that even though Forestry Tasmania doesn't have enough
plantation timber to fulfil the Ta Ann contract, and won't for decades,
he believes they're still entitled to use the word 'eco' in their
EVAN ROLLEY: Well, absolutely. Every tree
that is being harvested is being replanted and replaced. We're using a
product that is both biodegradable, it's recyclable and it's produced
sustainably. It's the one product that stores carbon and storing it as
we do in a veneer that then goes into a flooring product is an
eco-product - I can't think of a better one.
in Sarawak, Ta Ann Chairman Hamed Sepawi says the criticism is unfair
because they're adding value to trees destined for wood chips and only
five per cent of those logs come from high conservation value areas.
SEPAWI: Not a huge number for us, but because of that we got hit. It's
out of my area to describe how forests are managed, but I think
Forestry Tasmania, we believe under their very stringent Australian
Forestry Standards, they are basically managing the forests, the best
managed forests probably in the whole of Australia.
REWCASTLE BROWN: I think Ta Ann have decided that they're looking
forward and trying to create a sustainability label. They've been trying
to off load particularly obnoxious aspects of their business and
they're trying to create expensively a new image, one of an eco-friendly
sustainable caring company. Sadly, or unfortunately, it just doesn't
bear the slightest bit of scrutiny. Ta Ann is still owned and run by the
guys who have been logging Sarawak, destroying it for the last four
JENNY WEBER: Our organisation is concerned that Ta
Ann is using Tasmania to greenwash their practices in Sarawak. They are
using Tasmania's green brand. They are using the practices here in
Tasmania to say they are actually stepping forward as a responsible
company in the global market.
Sepawi says the Greens have misinterpreted and misrepresented the situation.
SEPAWI: As I said, we are not against the Greens in any way at all, but
for them to make it sound like we are the culprit - I think that's not
BOB BROWN: We're a free and open democracy and they're
coming under scrutiny, and there's going to be a lot more of it, a lot
more, because Ta Ann has a lot to answer for in its destruction of
Tasmania's high conservation value and wild and scenic forests. Of
course they say somebody else is doing that for us. Australians are
smart enough to say 'Well that's your fault, that's your
Original Music Composed by
21st August 2012