Dowsett joins Rohan Dennis and Jack Bobridge in announcing hour-record attempts slated for 2015, with the Brit set to make his bid February 27, at the Lee Valley VeloPark Velodrome, in London.
"Everyone understands a world record, so I wanted my next target to be the hour record," said Dowsett at press conference to announce the attempt.
"The hour is something I've always been interested in; the simplicity of it, mostly: no tactics, no hiding, just you and the bike."
The Brit, who is also a a sufferer of the blood-clotting disease, haemophilia, said a major motivation of his attempt is to raise awareness, and inspire fellow sufferers.
"Now I've got a new sense of drive as I know that the more success I can achieve, the more hope it will give everyone in the whole rare disease community.
"We spend our childhoods being told what we can't do, so I'm going for the record for anyone that gets told what they can't do something and goes out to prove themselves otherwise. I'm training a hell of a lot harder because of it."
The hour record is measured in distance, how far a rider, unassisted can ride in a one-hour effort. The record is currently set at 51.852km and by Mattias Brandle. Brandle was the second rider to attempt the record after Jens Voigt's record breaking ride - the first under the revised rules.
Previously, the hour record was governed by strict rules that prescribed riders to use a 'classic' bicycle. Those rules were revised significantly in May, and now allow riders to use modern-era track bikes.