British Cycling head coach Iain Dyer said in a statement on Tuesday that the 32-year-old would take one of Britain's two places for the individual time trial.
Dyer added that he expected the 31km course in Bergen, with a 3.4km climb up Mount Floyen to the finish, to play to the rider's strengths.
Froome had said after becoming the first Briton to win the Vuelta last weekend, and also the third man to complete a Tour-Vuelta double in the same year, that he aimed to compete for Sky in Sunday's team time trial and then "it's probably time for me to put my feet up".
The men's elite individual time trial is on the following Wednesday.
The 2017 UCI Road World Championships will be held in Bergen, Norway from 167-24 September and will be broadcast on SBS Viceland and streamed online.
Froome, who will not take part in the road race in Bergen, won the Olympic time trial bronze at last year's Games in Rio de Janeiro.
Mark Cavendish, the 2011 road race champion who broke his shoulder during the Tour de France in July, and Geraint Thomas, also injured in the Tour, will be absent after withdrawing from selection.
But Lizzie Deignan, the 2015 world champion, will be in the women's road race after having her appendix removed last month.
"There are some notable omissions from the squad," said Dyer.
"We are coming to the end of a long season for the road riders and injury and illness becomes inevitable so their decisions to withdraw themselves from selection are respected."