Vos made the most of the last corner to get a jump on the sprinters to finish ahead of Kirsten Wild (Wiggle High5) and defending champion Lotta Lepisto (Cervelo Bigla).
Vos was active in the latter stages of the race and in a break with 2016 Rio Olympic Games champion Anna van der Breggen (Boels-Dolmans) which was quickly shut down once the danger was apparent.
Van der Breggen was again a protagonist in the latter stages of the race with a breakaway coming with less than 20km left. But her exploit ended with five kilometres to go with a sprint finish looking set to decide the race.
Vos, a three-time world champion, and a living legend in the sport, then saw a small opportunity on the last corner leading to the finish. She managed a small gap which was then enough for the victory.
Boels-Dolmans TTT hat-trick
Boels-Dolmans won the 42.5km team time trial in Vårgårda for the third year in a row on Saturday. Stopping the clock at 53:08, Boels-Dolmans beat home world TTT champions Team Sunweb by 16 seconds. Cervélo-Bigla finished third, 47 seconds slower.
The six Boels-Dolmans riders were largely unfazed by the wet conditions, despite weeks of dry weather in Sweden. Anna van der Breggen travelled to Sweden from the European ITT championship where she bagged silver while Amalie Dideriksen took the European madison title on the track earlier in the week. Amy Pieters, who took bronze in the same race, was also part of the line-up. Christine Majerus, Karol-Ann Canuel and world road champion Chantal Blaak completed the team's line-up.
“It was wet for sure,” said Blaak. “Fortunately, everyone had the same conditions, so there wasn’t any difference between teams. Everyone had to deal with the wet circumstances.”
At the second time check, Team Sunweb still held the fastest time, six seconds ahead of Boels-Dolmans but were unable to bring it home.