Welshman Rowe revealed on Twitter on Friday (AEDT) that he has the coronavirus, suggesting an end to his season.
"Covid got me!" he said, adding: "See ya in 2021 ladies and gents.
"Merry Christmas & a Happy New Year ya filthy animals !!!"
Rowe is Ineos' road captain and a mainstay of their Classics squad, providing protection for team leaders on flat stages.
He participated in every one of Ineos' seven Tour de France wins.
Rowe's Ineos teammate Filippo Ganna also contracted COVID-19 after finishing the Giro d'Italia this year.
Ineos will assemble for training camp in the Canary Islands in January 2021.