Haddock is a member of the cod family generally fished in the North Atlantic. Smoked haddock is the most common fish used to make kedgeree, a breakfast dish that was popular among British colonials in India, and later found favour in England. Haddock is also frequently the fish of choice for fish and chips.
A condiment served with joints of lamb for the Sunday roast. The clean, fresh flavour of the mint is used to cut through the richness of the lamb.
Made by malting barley and traditionally light brown in colour. It's served with fish and chips at the traditional "chippie". "Non-brewed condiment” is a cheaper, synthetic alternative popular in Northern England.
Hot, white horseradish sauce
Derived from the root of the horseradish plant. The sharp relish is served as a condiment alongside traditional roast beef.
Sweet apple sauce
Stewed apple sauce is often served as an accompaniment to roast pork.
This famous sauce, known as a liquor (although it is non-alcoholic), is made with butter, flour and parsley. It's a bright shade of green and generally served with a meat pie and mash.
Made from flour, eggs and milk, then baked in the oven. Yorkshire pudding was traditionally served as a filler, with gravy, before the Sunday roast, but is now more likely found as an accompaniment to the main course.
British beef is a traditional favourite, however, English cooking has used many cheaper cuts of meat, like ears, tongues and cheeks. Kidneys and lamb’s fry, or liver, are breakfast staples. Kidneys are celebrated in steak and kidney pie. Smallgoods making is an art form with sausages that differ from region to region, cured cuts of pork, gammon, and the famous black pudding or blood sausage.
Suet is the hard and granular fat around the kidney of an animal. In England, beef suet has been most commonly used in cooking, where now often butter is substituted. It's still used in many Christmas puds.
Cucumber sandwiches are popular on a tea platter. The trick is to peel the skin and cut the cucumber very finely. Place it between two thin slices of crustless, lightly buttered white bread.
An English staple used in mashed potato, bangers and mash, shepherd’s pie, cottage pie, chips – who could live without the "chip butty" – chips in a bread roll with lashings of the household favourite, HP sauce.
Summer berries – strawberries, blackberries, blueberries and redcurrants – are beautifully perfumed and used widely. Wimbledon tennis is synonymous with strawberries and cream. Apples including heritage varieties are prized.
Pickling fish or vegetables is a tasty way of preserving fresh produce and eating it throughout the year. Rollmops are pickled fish fillets often wrapped around a pickled onion or cucumber. Pickled onions are common in a Ploughman’s lunch and served with strong cheddar. Branston Pickle is a popular relish of pickled cooked vegetables.
While there are many cheap, commercial copies of traditional English cheeses, like Cheddar and Cheshire, there are a number of farmhouse dairies that make delicious varieties of these old favourites, which are at the core of a Ploughman’s lunch. Stilton is the classic English blue-vein cheese.
The types of fish vary with the regions of England and whether they’re found in fresh or saltwater. Rainbow trout, river salmon and eels are some of the freshwater varieties. Rock cod, haddock, flounder, monkfish and herring are from saltwater.
Winter vegetables like root vegetables – swedes, parsnips and carrots – are popular in English cooking, along with cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts.