• This roasted goat shoulder serves eight - so dinner, and leftovers. (Sharyn Cairns)Source: Sharyn Cairns
You can reduce the environmental impact of a roast and keep it delicious.
Christian Reynolds

The Conversation
5 Jun 2019 - 10:42 AM  UPDATED 20 Sep 2019 - 2:10 PM

The Sunday roast is an institution for many families across the globe. From Australia to the UK, families come together on a Sunday to share a meal. More often than not, this meal is centred around a joint of roast meat – traditionally lamb or beef.

The health implications and environmental impacts of our diet have now become a regular discussion topic, with sustainable dietary advice recommending that we reduce meat consumption and increase our consumption of plant-based proteins, fruits and vegetables. But what does this practically mean: how can we eat for health and sustainability on a day-to-day basis?

Sources advocate shifting to a fully plant-based, vegetarian diet. Many people are resistant to this level of dietary change, however. But, as the old saying goes, every little helps. Many are opting for “meat-free Mondays” or even meat-free lunches. Messing with the Sunday roast, however, is a step too far for most. But given its focus on huge hunks of meat and energy inefficient cooking methods, it’s important to consider. So how might we create a more sustainable Sunday roast?

The main event

The Sunday roast - like most meals using animal products - has a high environmental impact. The joint of the meat itself can account for up to 60-70 per cent of the environmental impacts of the entire meal. This is due to the large amounts of water, land, and feed required to produce meat.

Purchasing sustainable and ethically farmed meat with lower environmental impacts can result in small (~5 per cent) environmental savings. However, to really reduce the environmental impact of meat, we need to eat less of it. So reducing the amount of meat is therefore the first step towards creating a sustainable Sunday roast.

The portion sizes for roast meats depend on the recipe used and can vary widely. Many roast beef recipes suggest between 125-800 g per person - but in the UK, dietary guidance suggests eating below 70 g of red and processed meat per day and in Australia, the Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend a maximum of 455 g of lean, cooked, red meat per week.

Explainer: Is eating meat healthy?
Dietician Karen Inge explores the place of meat in the modern Australian diet and the health benefits and risks associated with it.

Such large portions of beef can be partly explained by the need for leftovers in traditional recipes. But in today’s busy world, leftovers can easily become food waste. In 2014, a shocking 8 per cent of beef purchased by UK households became food waste. Over half of this was totally avoidable, caused by the cooking, serving or preparing of too much food, or leftovers not being used in time. With this in mind, our sustainable Sunday roast requires small portions – say 125 g per person, meaning 50-70 g for lunch, and a manageable amount for leftovers the next day.

Turning down the heat

A further benefit of cutting meat portions for a sustainable roast is that it will have a shorter cooking time, meaning less energy to cook, and reduced associated environmental impacts. Cooking is the other main contributor to this. The oven is an inefficient way of cooking meat at hot temperatures and for long periods of time. The environmental impact of roasting a joint of meat for over an hour in an oven contributes 20-30 per cent of the environmental impacts of the entire meal.

To make matters worse, overcooking roasts – for an extra 41 minutes, for example – adds further impacts through pointless energy use.

So as well as reducing the amount of meat served, we might also use new methods to cook a sustainable Sunday roast. Reverse searing involves cooking the joint of beef in a low heat oven or a slow cooker – until the internal temperature of the joint is between 55-60°C (the temperature that medium-done beef is cooked to) – and then transferring it to a pan and searing the joint. Depending on the energy efficiency of your oven or slow cooker, reverse searing may well have a lower impact than traditional cooking.

Cooking sous vide, meanwhile, involves placing a joint of beef in a vacuumed plastic pouch or bag, and submerging this in a heated water bath for several hours until the internal temperature of the joint is between 55-60°C. The joint is then unwrapped and placed in a hot skillet to sear its surface. Although this may sound like a lot of work, the method gives the cook total control of the texture and flavour and can use less than half the energy of a traditional oven method.

By combining sustainably sourced meat, a reduced portion size, and modern cooking methods, we could reduce the environmental impacts of a Sunday roast by over half.

Unfortunately, reducing the environmental impact of our Sunday roast will not hugely reduce the overall environmental impact of our diet. For this, we need to further reduce our meat consumption and increase our consumption of plant-based proteins, fruits and vegetables across all meals. In comparison to other more plant-forward meals that could be eaten, a sustainable Sunday roast has high environmental impacts. For this reason, even the sustainable Sunday roast should be kept as a special meal, and not eaten every week.

The ConversationThe good news is that, if the Sunday roast can be made a little more sustainable, it should be possible to create appetising yet sustainable versions of other popular dishes too.

Christian Reynolds, Knowledge Exchange Research Fellow (N8 Agrifood), University of Sheffield. This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

sustainable eating
What meat should I buy?
For a meat eater who cares about the planet and the welfare of animals, it's a jungle out there. There are so many choices. Matthew Evans has some suggestions on what to buy.
21 delicious ways to be a conscious carnivore
Think of this as "An Eating Guide For Conscious Carnivores". I've been thinking a lot about our decisions on what cook while making For The Love of Meat. You can have truly delicious food without making meat the star of the plate at every meal - as these 21 recipe show.

roast recipes
Slow-roasted goat shoulder with Middle Eastern spices

Goat has a wonderful flavour of its own, and the shoulders lend themselves particularly well to a flavour-packed marinade and a long, slow roast.

Rhubarb braised pork, roasted parsnips and flower sprouts

I love a pot roast lamb shoulder with vinegar and onions but this does the same thing, the natural acidity of the rhubarb providing the perfect match for this delicious slow-roast pork. Similar to brussels sprouts (although a lot less dense) flower sprouts (also known as rosetti sprouts) roast well, giving a result similar to roasted kale or cabbage wedges, both of which make good substitutes.

Roast lamb (cordero asado)

Christmas festivities begin on 8 December in Spain with The Feast of the Immaculate Conception and continue until 6 January for Three Kings’ Day. However, it is Christmas Eve that plays host to the main culinary event of the season. Known as la noche buena (the good night), dinner is eaten late, either before or after midnight mass. The feasting often begins with seafood, followed by roast lamb and pork, and is finished off with desserts including turron (sweet almond nougat) and polvorones (almond shortbread cookies). Cordero asado (roast lamb) is popular in the Catalan region of Spain, where a whole lamb is cooked over an open fire, often marinated with garlic, herbs and lemon. Of course, no Spanish roast is complete without a side of patatas fritas (fried potatoes).

Roasted chilli yoghurt chicken (taj murgh musallam)