Nationalism is the spectre that has haunted Europe and contributed to the wars of the 20th century
The European Parliament elections have reinforced the continent's political battlelines.
The pro-European Union forces may say they have held the line, but nationalist-right populists say the wind is in their sails.
Voters have abandoned centre-right and centre-left groups; some have flocked to the greens, others to the far-right.
The result tells us that the old economic class-war politics of left versus right has given way to culture wars over climate, trade and particularly immigration.
The results across Europe are uneven. Voter turnout was the highest in two decades. Overall, pro-EU parties dominate the Parliament, yet in several significant countries, the anti-EU forces have increased their vote, among them the Brexit party in Britain.
One powerful theme emerges: identity.
This election tells us that nation matters. Borders matter. The tribe matters.
Passions again run high and that is fertile ground for populists who capitalise on fear and anxiety.