Greens leader Christine Milne says a budget deficit levy would not be needed if the carbon tax stayed in place.
Senator Milne says the budget will be $6 billion worse off because of the federal government decision to scrap the tax and implement its direct action carbon policy.
She says middle-income earners, rather than the wealthy, would end up footing the bill if a levy was imposed.
"Why should we be going there when we've already got a carbon price which is returning $4 billion to the budget?" Senator Milne told reporters in Hobart.
"Why wouldn't we make the big polluters pay for their pollution?"
Senator Milne said a levy would break Prime Minister Tony Abbott's election promise of no new taxes.
She dismissed Mr Abbott's call for all Australians to contribute to fixing the budget.
"This budget will show the character of the man and his government," Senator Milne said.
"It is a character which says do whatever you have to do to maximise the wealth of the vested interests and dress it up as a contribution that the poorest can make to the profits of the few."