Here's a look back at the events that spurred the recent conflict between Israel and Hamas, which governs the Gaza Strip.
June 1967: Israel seizes the Egyptian-controlled Gaza Strip during war. An Israeli census put the population at 380,000, at least half of whom were refugees from Israel. Currently the population stands at about 1.65 million. The UN lists 1.2 million as refugees and their descendants.
December 1987: A clash in the Jebaliya refugee camp sets off Palestinian uprising which lasted until 1993 and claimed the lives of over 2,000 Palestinians and 192 Israelis. The militant Islamic Hamas is formed early in the uprising.
June 2003: Israel imposes a complete closure of Gaza on UN international staff, restricting humanitarian aid to the area.
September 2005: Israel withdraws its troops and 8,500 Jewish settlers from the Gaza Strip. Israel retains control of Gaza's airspace, coastal waters and border crossings, leading the Palestinians and some Israeli legal experts to argue that Israel is still an occupier.
Jan 26, 2006: Hamas wins a large majority in the Palestinian parliament over the more moderate party Fatah. Despite the win, Hamas never goes on to take control of the Palestinian Authority, which continues to be ruled by President Mahmoud Abbas.
June, 2007: Hamas violently seizes control of the Gaza Strip from Fatah. Hamas is considered a terrorist group by governments including Israel, the US and Australia.
June 2008: Hamas and Israel reach a truce to halt the cross-border rocket attacks and end Israeli offensives against Hamas an its leaders.
November 2008: Palestinians resume rocket and mortar fire into Israel after Israeli incursion.
December 19, 2008: Hamas formally declares the truce over.
December 27, 2008: Israel launches a fierce air offensive, killing more than 200 Palestinians in the first day.
January 1, 2009: Israel launches an air strike on the home of Hamas figure Nizar Rayyan, killing him along with his four wives and seven children. Rayyan was the highest-ranking religious leader of Hamas, and has been called the mastermind of the 2004 Ashdod Port attack in Israel.
January 15, 2009: Hamas leader Said Seyam killed in an airstrike in Jabilia.
May 31, 2010: Nine people are killed as Israeli forces storm a Gaza-bound convoy of ships some 64 kms off the coast of Israel. Activists onboard the vessels were attempting to defy a blockade imposed by Israel in order to provide aid to the Palestinian territory.
April 7, 2011: An anti-tank missile launched from the Gaza Strip hits an Israeli school bus, injuring two people including a teenage boy. Israel retaliated with air strikes that lasted several days and resulted in the deaths of 19 people.
April 27, 2011: Fatah and Hamas sign a historic reconciliation accord in Cairo, uniting under the common goal of opposing the Israeli occupation. Israel's Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu responded saying that Mahmoud Abbas could not hope for a peace deal with Israel while building an alliance with Hamas.
August 21, 2011: Israel arrests 120 Hamas leaders in the southern West Bank after a round of missiles are launched from Gaza into Israeli territory.
March 12, 2012: Gaza violence spikes as Israel launches a wave of rockets into the territory. According to reports, around 20 Palestinians were killed by airstrikes while 120 rockets landed in Israel, wounding four.
November 14, 2012: The head of Hamas' military wing, Ahmed al-Jaabari, was killed by Israeli rocket fire in a targeted attack, sparking renewed fighting between Hamas and Israel in the Gaza strip.