What is Closing the Gap?
The current targets cover life expectancy, child mortality, education and employment, and were formally set by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in 2008.
University of Canberra Chancellor Tom Calma was one of the driving forces behind creating the campaign during his time as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner. He told SBS News this week: "Many of us in the stakeholder groups believe the targets that were set weren’t appropriately set, particularly on timeframes".
“We don’t want to be unequal as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people,” he said.
“We want to enjoy the same life expectancy outcomes as the non-Indigenous population, not die 10 years younger.
Tom Calma on Closing the Gap: 10 years on
Most targets not on track
The annual Closing the Gap report has become sobering reading. The 2017 report found only one of the targets was on track.
"This is shameful", the National Congress of Australia’s First Peoples’ Jackie Huggins told SBS News.
"You’re on the road to nowhere. Things will fail, they will keep going backwards. So, we really do need to get fair dinkum, once again."
Jackie Huggins on Closing the Gap: 10 years on
Professor Calma says, at least, the statistics are heading in the right direction.
"Short answer: no, the targets won’t be met, but the trending is very positive on all the targets,” he said.
"Things have been happening slowly but not in a coordinated way, although there have been sparks of coordination. This is why I think we need to reset the way we’ve been going about business."
Do we need new targets?
Even the prime minister has agreed a refresh of the campaign is needed. In December 2016, the government committed to a Closing the Gap refresh.
“Australian governments acknowledge they need to work differently with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians,” the Closing the Gap Refresh discussion paper noted.
“The refreshed agenda could … be expanded to capture targets or commitments about other things that are identified as being important. Alternatively, there could be only a few targets, to focus [a] national, coordinated effort.”
This week, Indigenous leaders and delegates from around the country will meet in Canberra to discuss ideas and strategies on revitalising the campaign.
“We [the National Congress] have asked for four additional targets, which are housing, justice, family violence and child protection,” Ms Huggins said.
Professor Calma is asking people not to dismiss the targets simply because they haven’t been met.
“I’d really urge that we don’t look at throwing all these current targets out,” he said. “Let’s look at what worked and what didn’t work. Let’s take the learnings from the first decade and build on that.”
At the end of the week, the Indigenous delegation will report to a Council of Australian Governments meeting in Canberra. There may be calls for more targets, or to change the strategy instead.
“Over time, we’ve seen states and territories start to lose a bit of focus and there’s definitely a lack of coordination between the federal government and state and territory governments,” Professor Calma said.
He said some of the responsibility for closing the gap also lies with Indigenous people.
“Governments can’t make us healthy, governments can’t make us go to school, we’ve got to take those decisions ourselves,” he said.
“We are doing that but we need to be supported to do it in a more meaningful and substantive way.”