Perhaps the issue the new nationalist right in Europe feels most strongly about is immigration, and the changing demographics it has resulted in.
Currently, there are 35.1 million people born outside of the European Union (EU) living in one of the EU’s 28 member states. The most recent figures show Luxembourg, Switzerland and Austria have the highest percentage of foreign born people living in the country.
Across Europe, the percentage of the population born in a foreign country has been increasing for many years. Between 2000 and 2013, the number rose from 10.4 per cent to 16.7 per cent in Austria, from 7.9 per cent to 12.3 per cent in the United Kingdom, and in France it increased from 10.1 per cent to 11.7 per cent from 2000 to 2010.
These trends have stoked the fears of anti-immigrant groups, who worry white European culture will be slowly usurped in increasingly diverse, cosmopolitan countries.
The long-term increases in migration have been accelerated in the past two years by the European migrant crisis, which saw sharp increases in the number of people seeking asylum in Europe.
Reacting to this influx of refugees, predominantly from the Middle East and Africa, was a vocal movement to have refugees expelled. There were also many cases of violence – officials in Germany say there were 3,500 attacks on migrants or asylum shelters in the country during 2016.
Many of the arguments from far right groups about the dangers of granting asylum to refugees, focus on Muslim migrants and their culture.
In a recent Dateline story from Denain, the poorest town in France, local National Front candidate Regine Andris says she fears Muslims in her community; “They pray every hour, the mats in the streets. The way they are dressed…and we have no control,” she says.
“All those people who wear long robes, underneath, it is for stealing.”
A National Front voter from Denain, Yves Danset, says Muslim immigrants are receiving too much government attention, to the detriment of what he calls, “old stock French”.
“We feel like the life-blood’s being sucked out of us, absorbed by the Muslim religion with their customs, while our own customs disappear.”
Martin Sellner, the Identitarian leader, has expressed similar views about Vienna’s Muslim population.
“We are at the brink of being replaced by immigrants, who neither assimilate nor integrate into society,” he says.
In one of the Identitarians’ most widely publicised stunts in Austria, they covered a statue of Austrian monarch Empress Maria Theresa in Vienna’s main square with a burqa.
“The message was if you don't stop what's happening now, that will be the future of Vienna,” he says. “All our heritage, what she was fighting for, what she built up, it’s destroyed now.”