Respiratory expert and RACP president-elect Professor John Wilson said a comprehensive and coordinated public health response was needed.
"This is an unprecedented public health crisis and we don't yet know the impact this prolonged exposure to bushfire smoke is going to have," he said in a statement.
"Since the bushfire crisis began, doctors have already seen an increase in patients presenting with respiratory issues.
"It's critical that there is a comprehensive and coordinated response to this health crisis, and that all who need healthcare have timely access to expert health services."
It is crucial to also keep mental health impacts in mind when considering the effects of the bushfire disaster, Professor Wilson said.
Australasian Faculty of Public Health Medicine president Linda Selvey said the spread of contagious diseases was a risk as recovery efforts began in bushfire-ravaged disaster zones.
"There are also potential health risks relating to evacuation such as food and water supply and quality, and communicable diseases from many people collected together in small places for prolonged periods," she said.
"There are longer-term health risks to people directly affected, particularly relating to mental health and risk of injury and illness associated with the clean-up and rebuilding process.
"All of these factors need to be taken into consideration as we tackle this national public health crisis."
The RACP was one of 22 organisations that signed a joint statement in December calling on the federal government to combat the health impacts of climate change.