Mr Trump called for "a pro-American curriculum that celebrates the truth".
"Our youth will be taught to love America with all of their heart, all of their soul," he said.
Behind in the polls six weeks before the presidential election, Mr Trump is going all out to stir up his right-wing base against what he argues is a far-left plot to change the American way of life.
He has taken particular aim at so-called critical race theory, racial sensitivity training and attempts to reexamine US history by centering the deep roots of racism against African Americans.
Mr Trump, whose speech marked Constitution Day, was speaking after a summer of sometimes violent anti-police protests, triggered by high-profile shootings and killings by officers of black suspects during arrests.
The unrest, which activists say reflected pent-up anger at the country's failure to reckon with racism, also saw crowds tearing down historic statues - some celebrating figures from the slave-owning South in the Civil War and some representing the country's early founders.
“Whether it is the mob on the street or the cancel culture in the boardroom, the goal all is the same — to silence dissent, to scare you out of speaking the truth, and to bully Americans into abandonment of their values, their heritage and their very way of life,” Mr Trump said in the speech at the White House Conference on American History.
"We are here today to declare that we will never submit to tyranny. We will reclaim our history, and our country, for citizens of every race, colour, religion and creed," Mr Trump said.
"The left-wing rioting and mayhem are the direct result of decades of left-wing indoctrination in our schools."
He called revisionist history projects and racial sensitivity training "toxic propaganda - an ideological poison that, if not removed, will dissolve the civic bonds that tie us together, will destroy our country."
Mr Trump noted he had recently banned such training "in the strongest manner possible" from federal offices.