The US has launched its economic plan for Middle East peace but the Palestinians and many Arab nations are unhappy with it, and expectations of success are low.
The Trump administration has launched a $US50 billion ($A72 billion) economic formula for Israeli-Palestinian peace on Tuesday, saying an investment-driven pathway forward for the Palestinians is a necessary precondition for ending the decades-old conflict.
Opening a two-day international meeting in the Gulf kingdom of Bahrain on Tuesday, US President Donald Trump's son-in-law and senior adviser Jared Kushner said prosperity for Palestinians was not possible without a fair political solution to the conflict.
But he added that by working to develop the Palestinian economy, the result could be "a real peace that leads to prosperity".
"We see tremendous potential," he said, adding the focus of the White House was on how to break deadlocked peace efforts.
The Palestinian leadership has previously reiterated its disdain for the plan and Saudi Arabia, envisaged as one of its main bank-rollers, has also indicated some reservations.
The meeting has been billed as the first part of Washington's broader political blueprint - billed "Peace to Prosperity" - to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
But the political details of the plan, which has been almost two years in the making, remain a secret. Neither the Israeli nor Palestinian governments are attending the curtain-raising event in Manama. Lebanon and Iraq are also staying away.
Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, whose Palestinian Authority exercises limited self-rule in the Israeli-occupied West Bank, was scathing about its prospects of success.
"Money is important. The economy is important. But politics are more important. The political solution is more important."
Kushner appeared to acknowledge such views, suggesting the politics of the conflict needed more time to address.
He said: "To be clear, economic growth and prosperity for the Palestinian people are not possible without an enduring and fair political solution to the conflict . . . one that guarantees Israel's security, and respects the dignity of the Palestinian people.
"However, today is not about the political issues. We will get to those at the right time."
Washington will be hoping that attendees in Manama such as wealthy Gulf states will show a concrete interest in the plan, which expects donor nations and investors to contribute $US50 billion to Palestinian territories, Jordan, Egypt and Lebanon.
Saudi Arabia, a close US ally which shares a common foe with Israel in Iran, voiced support on Tuesday for "international efforts aimed at improving prosperity, investment and economic growth in the region".
But Riyadh reiterated that any peace deal should be based on the Saudi-led Arab peace initiative that has been the Arab consensus on the necessary elements for a deal since 2002.
That plan calls for a Palestinian state drawn along borders which predate Israel's capture of territory in the 1967 Middle East war, as well as a capital in East Jerusalem and refugees' right of return - points rejected by Israel.
The United Nations and most nations back the two-state solution and it has underpinned every peace plan for decades.
UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres called for "peace efforts to realise the vision of two States, Israel and Palestine, living side by side in peace and security".
In Gaza, businesses closed doors in a general strike called by the ruling Islamist Hamas group and other factions.
In the West Bank on the outskirts of Ramallah, where a small crowd of protesters was dispersed by Israeli troops firing tear gas, Palestinian lawmaker Mustafa Barghouti said: "There can be no economic solution as a substitute for our freedom."