"It's laughable," he told Sky News on Thursday.
"Labor hasn't delivered a surplus since 1989 so it should surprise no one they're going to look around for some other way to measure economic output."
New Zealand's revamped budget process is focused on five key priorities including mental health, child wellbeing and supporting Maori and Pacific Islander aspirations.
It includes a record $NZ1.9 billion ($AU1.79 billion) of new spending over four years towards mental health programs and suicide reduction and $NZ1.1 billion towards child welfare initiatives.
About $NZ5.5 million has also been set aside for mental health support for Christchurch after the March 15 mosque shootings in the city.
Dr Chalmers said Australia should consider how gross domestic product, or economic growth measures, could be supplemented in the budget.
"We could look at a version of New Zealand's wellbeing budget, which redefines what success means in terms of economic outcomes," he said in a speech.
He said GDP's shortcomings were exposed during the bushfire crisis through personal, social and environmental costs.
"While some of these costs are direct, and others indirect, they're notoriously difficult to quantify properly," the senior Labor frontbencher said.
But Mr Frydenberg accused Dr Chalmers of looking for an alternative to proper accounting.
"This is Labor doublespeak for higher taxes and more debt," the treasurer said.