Clinical trials "quite often" don't report specific results for males and females, according to Dr Carcel. Drugs which may be effective for both men and women could cause worse side effects in women.
The report by Dr Carcel and Dr Zoe Wainer recommends health bodies, researchers and governments develop guidelines and regulations on the issue.
The paper also says researchers should get extra funding to ensure sex and gender data was included.
"This is not simply a women's or men's health issue, but an issue for all Australians," they write.
Dr Carcel, a senior fellow at the George Institute for Global Health, said some medical research only tested male genes.
She pointed to a HIV-treatment drug in the United States that was approved only for men because researchers never tested it on women.
In Australia, Dr Carcel said they found women were not getting checked as much as men for cardiovascular disease risks.
Dr Carcel says funding bodies and medical journals should require the medical researchers deliver data on both men and women
Asked when all of this needs to happen, Dr Carcel simply says "yesterday".
"I don't know why it's taken Australia this long to get on board because its certainly been happening in other countries," she said.
"So we are really lagging behind."