Fewer than a third of women, who were all under 40, believed both sexes were treated equally in the workplace, while half of the men surveyed did.
Sexual harassment was also commonplace at work for many women, with 10 per cent having endured such behaviour in their current job.
Women with a disability, or who were from culturally diverse backgrounds, gay, or studying were most likely to have been harassed.
One woman told of how she was described as a "tasty little bitch" after meeting with a GP, while another in the legal industry was told by a magistrate to "prove to me you're more than blonde hair and blue eyes".
Other women told of how male colleagues commented on their bras, or were told how their harassers were "just being friendly".
Reporting the harassment was difficult for many, with women fearful about the impact it could have on their career progression or worried that their boss wouldn't sanction the perpetrator.
One of the study's co-authors, Dr Elizabeth Hill, from the University of Sydney's Women, Work & Leadership Research Group, said while young women were "crying out to be treated with respect" they actually had a poor experience of being valued in the workplace.
"Enough is enough. Workplaces have to change," Dr Hill told AAP as the study was released on Tuesday.
"Australian women are better educated than ever and this is the workplace they are faced with."
The study is described as the first of its kind in terms of giving young working women a voice about their work aspirations and current experiences.
While most women rated job security as another top priority, just three in five felt secure in their current jobs.
Being able to work somewhere that was flexible and offered predictable hours was important for nine-in-10 women, particularly those with caring responsibilities.
Four-in-10 of the women had a least one child and half expected to have another.
Dr Hill said while debate about the future of workplaces often focused on the importance of technology and robots, 60 per cent of projected jobs growth in Australia through to 2030 is linked to industries where women dominate, such as healthcare and education.
"So the future of work is actually about young women," she said.
"But what we've found is that there this gap, that the majority of Australian workplaces aren't yet ready to meet young women's aspirations to court their future success at work."