The appointment comes as the Federal Opposition ramps up its campaign to end family violence, with the newly-created position announced as part of a minor reshuffle in the Labor ministry.
Ms Burney says she will work with vulnerable groups to tackle family violence, including First Nations communities.
"It's such an important area, it's such a pervasive problem in society, and of course for the Aboriginal community it is a major issue," she told NITV News.
"I was shocked to learn violence has become so normalised," she said.
"I was talking to some young Aboriginal women and the issue of violence was so normalised for them and that should not be the case, it's not normal. It's a crime and people need to understand what violence looks like."
She says disabled women are another vulnerable group.
"The other area where there is enormous problems is in the disability sector. Women with a disability are over-represented as well when it comes to domestic violence," she said.
"The first thing I want to is actually link up with the people that work in the sector - the providers, women's legal services, but also most importantly be guided by the voices of people that have experienced family violence."
The position was previously held by Terri Butler in a Shadow Assistant Minister role before being elevated to the position of a Shadow Minister. Ms Burney will retain her portfolio as Shadow Minister of Human Services.
"Reflecting Labor’s strong commitment to ending the scourge of family violence, I am proud to elevate this portfolio to a Shadow Ministerial position, with Linda Burney becoming the Shadow Minister for Preventing Family Violence," Labor leader Bill Shorten said.
The issue of family violence currently sits between the government portfolios of the Attorney-General and Minister for Women within Cabinet, depending on specific legislation.
Just this week, the federal government introduced new legislation to protect victims of serious family violence from having to directly cross-examine or be cross-examined by perpetrators of violence during family law proceedings.