Marta scored the opener from close range after nine minutes and later added a second-half strike as Brazil thrashed China 5-0 to open their campaign in Japan.
The 35-year-old made her Olympics debut back in 2004 when the Games were held in Athens.
Marta went on to score in the Beijing, London and Rio tournaments before also netting in Tokyo on Wednesday.
She is yet to win the Olympics, though, earning silver medals in 2004 and 2008.
Marta's teammate Formiga, who is impressively still playing at 43, also broke records by playing against China.
An astonishing 25 years on from her Olympics debut in Atlanta in 1996, Formiga has become the oldest player in the history of football at the Games.
She is also the first Brazilian to compete in seven editions of the Olympics.
Next up for Brazil is a clash with Netherlands on Saturday.