The Matildas star scored 40 goals to go with 17 assists in 2021, including six from six at the Tokyo Olympic Games as Tony Gustavsson’s side fell just short of a maiden medal.
Putellas, 27, scored as Barca beat Kerr's Chelsea 4-0 to secure their first Champions League crown.
She ended the 2020-21 season as the highest-scoring midfielder in Europe with 26 goals in all competitions and was also named UEFA's Women's Player of the Year and Midfielder of the Year.
Barcelona team-mate Jennifer Hermoso came second, finding the back of the net 40 times in all competitions to claim a fifth golden boot from the last six league seasons.
Putellas win was an emotional one, as she paid tribute to her dead father, with her mother and sister joining her on stage.