Decided by a panel of cycling journalists, the Velo d'Or award annually honours the cyclist considered the best performer of the season.
It is just the second time in the award's 27-year history a Frenchman has earned the Velo d'Or and the first since 1995 when Laurent Jalabert won.
“I am very happy with the incredible season I’ve had and to receive the Velo d’Or is a beautiful way to conclude this amazing year," Alaphilippe said.
"I want to thank those who voted for me and decided that I should receive this trophy, it’s a great honour.
"It was an unforgettable campaign, with many beautiful moments – from winning my first Monument in March to wearing the yellow jersey for 14 days.
"It wouldn’t have been possible without my extraordinary (Deceuninck – Quick-Step) squad," he said.
According to Cyclingnews, Alaphilippe received 74 votes, Egan Bernal 68 and Primoz Roglic 54.
In 2019, Bernal was crowned champion of the Tour de France, Tour de Suisse and Paris-Nice while Vuelta winner Roglic also won Tirreno-Adriatico, Tour de Romandie and finished third overall at the Giro d'Italia.
Julian Alaphilippe's 2019 victories (Career total: 30)
Vuelta a San Juan Internacional - Stage 2
Vuelta a San Juan Internacional - Stage 3
Colombia 2.1 - Stage 5
Tirreno-Adriatico - Stage 2
Tirreno-Adriatico - Stage 6
Itzulia Basque Country
La Flèche Wallonne - Stage 2
Critérium du Dauphiné - Stage 6
Tour de France - Stage 3
Tour de France - Stage 13 (ITT)