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  • Shaun Taruvinga receives his Citizenship certificate from then Prime Minister Tony Abbott at a Ceremony on January 26, 2015 in Canberra, Australia (Getty Images)Source: Getty Images
Many people choose Australia day to become an Australian citizen, with ceremonies held around the country, but what are the steps involved before reaching that stage?
Amy Chien-Yu Wang

18 Jan 2018 - 11:14 AM  UPDATED 18 Jan 2018 - 4:30 PM

More than five million people have been granted Australian citizenship since 1949.

The final key step is the citizenship ceremony where people pledge their loyalty, and accept the rights and responsibilities as an Australian.

Permanent Residency

Ruby Fowdar is a migration agent from Brisbane-based Australian Immigration Agency.

She explains that the prerequisite to Australian citizenship is ensuring that you are eligible to apply.

“The requirement for migrants is that they become permanent resident first,” says Fowdar.

“Even if you are in Australia on a few different visas, like a student visa or a work visa, it is not considered as a permanent residency visa.

“So you have to be a permanent resident first to become citizen.

“And once they are permanent resident and have lived in Australia for four years, and been a permanent resident for one year, they will be eligible to become citizens.”

Apply for Permanent Residency and find out more here. 

Application processing time

The Department of Home Affairs recommends applying online for faster processing time.

According to Damien Kilner from the Department’s Family and Citizenship Programme, for most applicants, the average processing time for citizenship is 14 months.

Citizenship test

Applicants must also pass the Australian citizenship test to show their knowledge of Australia and understanding of the privileges and responsibilities as a citizen.

“It’s really looking at: have you got a basic level of English?” says Damien Kilner.

“Being able to sit in front of a computer system and undertake the test, which is a relatively straight-forward process, takes around half an hour in general.”

The 20-question multiple-choice citizenship test is based on the online booklet ‘Australian Citizenship – Our Common Bond’ which is an overview of Australia, its democratic beliefs, rights, government and law.

“People are expected to have a look at those resource materials in preparation and then they are able to sit the test once they feel confident to be able to answer that,”

Most people pass the test with a pass mark of 75 per cent. In the year 2014 to 2015, 98.6 per cent of those who sat the test passed.

Find out more information about the Citizenship test here.

Proposed changes to Citizenship laws

But things could get tougher for aspiring citizens, with the Department of Home Affairs proposing to temporarily ban applicants from sitting the citizenship test after multiple failures.  

“The government has indicated some changes,” says Kilner. “And one of the changes that has been indicated is three times, and if you do fail, there is a period of up to two years where you would expected to come back and resit.”

“But it’s up to passage of that legislation getting through."

The government is proposing that applicants sit a separate English test to prove that they have a “competent” level of reading, writing, listening and speaking, which is equivalent to an IELTS level of 5.0.

People aged over 60, children under 16, those with hearing, speech or sight impairments, and people with physical or mental incapacity, are not required to sit the test.

“So, somebody would sit that as they do now in terms of the migration outcome applying for skilled visa or student visa where English language is a mandatory requirement in terms of providing evidence of their capacity,” says Kilner.

Another major change that could come into effect from this July is the extension of the required period of permanent residence from one to four years, subject to the passage of legislation.

“So, the government conducted a review in terms of the overall citizenship legislation that formed the basis of the draft legislation that was put before parliament last year,” explains Kilner.

“So, at the stage, we’re proceeding on the basis that legislation is before parliament, and then if that does pass, then it would be subject to what goes through in parliament.”

The Citizenship Pledge

Once the citizenship application is approved, applicants are required by law to attend the citizenship ceremony to make the Australian Citizenship Pledge.

There are two versions of the Pledge, one that mentions God, and one without.

“Taking a pledge is a part of being a commitment as the final step in officially becoming an Australian citizen,” says Damien Kilner of the Department of Home Affairs.

“So for the vast majority of people, they are required to undertake the pledge and they’re able to show their loyalty to Australia and accept the responsibility and privileges of Australian citizenship. 

“It also signals a person’s commitment to being active member of our society as well.”

The Citizenship Ceremony

About 100,000 people undertake citizenship ceremonies across Australia each year – many choosing Australia day, 26 January, as the time to take this pledge.  

Most ceremonies are held by city councils, generally lasting between an hour to two hours.

It normally takes three to six months for applicants to be invited to a ceremony once their application is approved.

“The mayor or lord mayor or a chief executive officer of the council, who’s the presiding officer, is required to read the preamble, which is specified within the Citizenship Act, which provides further information to all the attendees around the citizenship ceremony,” explains Kilner.

“There’s also a ‘welcome to nation’ or ‘welcome to country’, and the minister’s message is read, the anthem is played, and then there is the pledge made by those that are attending.”

Soon-to-be citizens need to bring their personal identifications in order to attend the ceremony.

“What’s expected is that when somebody turns up at the ceremony, the Council or our staff would check the identity of the person attending so that we can be satisfied who they are,” says Kilner.

"So, the vast majority of people will have their driver’s license or their passport with them."

Find out more
What happens at a citizenship ceremony?
26 January is a big day for Australian migrants to become Australian citizens. Here's what you need to know about preparing for your citizenship ceremony.

Ruby Fowdar studied and worked in regional Queensland before being granted citizenship.  

“I actually had my citizenship ceremony on Australia Day, I wanted to do it on Australia day on 26th January,” says Fowdar.

“It was really proud moment, my name being called out and they give a certificate saying, you’re Australian citizen, you belong to this awesome community as of now.”


Further resources:

For more information on how to become an Australian Citizen, visit:

The Citizenship Guide

The Department of Home Affairs Citizenship Wizard

For people requiring language assistance can call the Translating and Interpreting Service (TIS) on 131 450.

What happens at a citizenship ceremony?
26 January is a big day for Australian migrants to become Australian citizens. Here's what you need to know about preparing for your citizenship ceremony.
The benefits of becoming an Australian citizen
Are you an Australian citizen? Or are you planning for Australian citizenship? Know the benefits availed to you by the government.