Cahill is one of four changes, with Apo Giannou, Chris Ikonomidis and Ryan McGowan all left out, while Nathan Burns, Josh Risdon, Milos Degenek and Jamie Maclaren come in.
Cahill missed Melbourne City's most recent match against Adelaide United, but Socceroos coach Ange Postecoglou insists Cahill's injury is not serious.
“Tim has been left out primarily because we have a 10 day lead in, which is very rare, and I want to be able to put the squad through a lot of work,” Postecoglou said.
“He has done a lot of travel for club and country and I have decided it is better he remains in Melbourne where he is being managed well to ensure he is back on the park as soon as possible and ready for us down the track.
Cahill, Australia's all-time leading goal-scorer, will be replaced by Brisbane Roar striker Jamie Maclaren who has scored one goal in the first four matches of the A-League season.
Maclaren played once before for the Socceroos, against England in May this year, after a stellar 2015-2016 A-League season when he scored 19 goals in 25 matches.
“Jamie Maclaren has started the season well in Brisbane and transformed that form into a goal on the weekend so he will come into the squad, as will Burnsy, which gives us options up front.”
After conceding three goals in their last two qualifiers, Postecoglou has decided to bring reinforcements at full-back, through Risdon and Degenek.
“Josh has been in good early season form in the Hyundai A-League with Perth while Milos returned from injury last weekend in Germany so they will come back into the squad,” Postecoglou said.
“They give us some good balance at right back.
“We’ve made four changes to the squad that played Saudi Arabia and Japan last month.
“It was good to have another weekend of matches to look at before deciding on the final 23-man squad and we will travel to Thailand for a solid training camp ahead of what is an important match.
“The Thailand match is the halfway mark in this stage of qualifying and with the group so tight it is important that we put in a good performance to ensure we can continue to be amongst the front runners.
"We have a big lead in so we will get through a lot of work before the match so we are ready to go on the 15th.”