Helicopter parenting is creating a generation of children who do not have the skill or will to look after themselves and defend themselves in the outside world, says former Standford University dean.
Julie Lythcott-Haims noticed a disturbing trend during her decade as a dean of freshmen at Stanford University.
Incoming students were brilliant and accomplished and virtually flawless, on paper. But with each year, more of them seemed incapable of taking care of themselves.
At the same time, parents were becoming more and more involved in their children's lives.
They talked to their children multiple times a day and swooped in to personally intervene anytime something difficult happened.
From her position at one of the world's most prestigious schools, Lythcott-Haims came to believe that mothers and fathers in affluent communities have been hobbling their children by trying so hard to make sure they succeed, and by working so diligently to protect them from disappointment and failure and hardship.
Such "overhelping" might assist children in developing impressive resumes for college admission.
But it also robs them of the chance to learn who they are, what they love and how to navigate the world, Lythcott-Haims argues in her book "How to Raise an Adult: Break Free of the Overparenting Trap and Prepare Your Kid for Success".
"We want so badly to help them by shepherding them from milestone to milestone and by shielding them from failure and pain. But overhelping causes harm."
"We want so badly to help them by shepherding them from milestone to milestone and by shielding them from failure and pain. But overhelping causes harm," she writes.
"It can leave young adults without the strengths of skill, will and character that are needed to know themselves and to craft a life."
Lythcott-Haims is one of a growing number of writers - including Jessica Lahey ("The Gift of Failure") and Jennifer Senior ("All Joy and No Fun: The Paradox of Modern Parenthood") - who are urging stressed-out helicopter parents to breathe and loosen their grip on their children.
"Don't call me a parenting expert," she said in an interview.
"I'm interested in humans thriving, and it turns out that overparenting is getting in the way of that."
She cites reams of statistics on the rise of depression and other mental and emotional health problems among the nation's young people.
She has seen the effects up close: Lythcott-Haims lives in Palo Alto, California, a community that, following a string of suicides in the past year, has undertaken a period of soul-searching about what parents can do to stem the pressure that young people face.
Her book tour is taking her to more school auditoriums and parent groups than bookstores.
She tells stories about over-involved mothers and fathers, and shares statistics about rising depression and other mental health problems in young people, that she hopes will spark change in communities around the country where helicopter parents are making themselves, and their kids, miserable.
"Our job as a parent is to put ourselves out of a job," she said.
"We need to know that our children have the wherewithal to get up in the morning and take care of themselves."
So are you a helicopter parent? Here are some of Lythcott-Haims's simple tests:
Check your language. "If you say 'we' when you mean your son or your daughter - as in, 'We're on the travel soccer team' - it's a hint to yourself that you are intertwined in a way that is unhealthy," Lythcott-Haims said.
Examine your interactions with adults in your child's life. "If you're arguing with teachers and principals and coaches and umpires all the time, it's a sign you're a little too invested," she said. "When we're doing all the arguing, we are not teaching our kids to advocate for themselves."
Stop doing their homework. Enough said.
And how can parents help their children become self-sufficient? Teach them the skills they'll need in real life, and give them enough leash to practice those skills on their own, Lythcott-Haims said. And have them do chores. "Chores build a sense of accountability. They build life skills and a work ethic."
Lythcott-Haims said many parents ask how they can unilaterally de-escalate in what feels like a college-admissions arms race. How can they relax about getting their child into Harvard if every other parent is going full speed ahead?
She said colleges could help tamp down on the admissions craze by going test-optional, leaving it up to students whether to submit SAT or ACT scores.
And perhaps top-tier schools could agree to limit the number of such schools that each student may apply to, she said.
She urges families to think more broadly about what makes for a "good" college.
There are excellent educational experiences to be had at schools that aren't among US News and World Report's top 20, she says, and there are schools that will accept students who don't have a perfect resume.
Parents need to see that even children who succeed in doing the impossible - getting into Stanford, or Harvard, or other elite schools - bear the scars of the admissions arms race.
"They're breathless," Lythcott-Haims said. "They're brittle, they're old before their time."