• Okay, so maybe not the wombat... (Getty Images)Source: Getty Images
We may be what we eat, but our dietary choices also affect the health of the environment, and farmers' back pockets.
Euan Ritchie, Adam Munn

The Conversation
23 May 2016 - 4:04 PM  UPDATED 24 May 2016 - 12:53 PM

Energy and water use, native habitat cut down for crops and grazing and emissions that exacerbate climate change, are just some of the profound effects agriculture has on Earth. And, there are more and more mouths to feed.

Perversely, both starvation and obesity are severe health issues across the world. With agriculture confronted by economic and environmental uncertainties, society faces enormous challenges.

Drastically rethinking what we eat, and where and how food is produced, could help our health, the planet and our farming businesses.

But challenges also offer great opportunities. Drastically rethinking what we eat, and where and how food is produced, could help our health, the planet and our farming businesses.

That means eating fewer sheep and cows, and more kangaroos, feral animals and insects.

Unsustainable farming

Australia’s rangelands - the drier regions of the country predominantly used for livestock and grazing - cover about 80% of the country. They are often in poor condition and economically unviable. In part, this is due to the fact we still farm many animals, mostly in ways that are unsuited to the Australian climate and environment.

Hard-hoofed animals contribute to soil compaction and erosion and have even been linked to the spread of the invasive cane toad. But the environmental impact of intensive stock farming extends much further.

Continuing to farm using a European-derived, intensive system is a recipe for land degradation and environmental collapse, especially with the compounding impacts of climate change (severe weather events, more frequent and intense droughts, and fires).

Past and current agricultural practices have also profoundly altered our environment. It may be impossible to restore these lands to their original condition, so we must learn to operate in the new environment we’ve created.

More broadly, many experts have identified our meat consumption and intensive farming as a significant driver of global problems.

We need a more diverse mix of meat to adapt to the pressures of a growing population and climate change.

Treading lightly

To address these issues, we need a cultural shift away from intensive agriculture. The days of riding and relying on the sheep’s back, cattle’s hoof, or the more recent, and increasingly popular, chicken’s wing, may need to pass.

Native wildlife and some feral animals tread more lightly on the environment than intensively produced livestock do, and thus provide more sustainable options for food production on Australia’s arid lands. Kangaroos and goats place one-third of the pressure on grazing lands compared with sheep.

We already eat some of these animals, but could arguably eat more of them, including feral goats, camels, deer, rabbits, pigs, and buffalo, as well as native emus and kangaroos.

Classic with a twist: kangaroo and chilli sausage rolls

Check out the recipe for these kangaroo sausage rolls here.


Yet more extreme proposals could include feral donkeys, cats, horses; and even cane toads. Horses are already consumed in Europe and cats in central Australia.

Eating more feral and native animals, and relying less on chicken, sheep, domestic pigs, and cattle would help meet ethical concerns too. Wild animals such as kangaroos are killed quickly, without the extended stress associated with industrialised farming, containment, and transportation to abattoirs.

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And by harvesting sometimes overabundant wild native animals (such as kangaroos) and feral species, we may be able to reduce their impacts on ecosystems, which include overgrazing and damage to waterways.

An even greater leap would be to eat fewer four-limbed animals and more six-legged creatures. Insects are often high in protein and low in fat, and can be produced in large numbers, efficiently and quickly. They are already consumed in large numbers in some regions, including Asia.

Evidence that a market for such a food revolution exists is that shops are already popping up selling mealworm flour, ant seasoning salt, and cricket protein powder, among other delicacies.

Boom and bust

Thanks to Australia’s variable climate, swinging between drought and flood, many farms are also tied to a boom-and-bust cycle of debt and credit.

As the climate becomes increasingly unpredictable, this economic strategy must be detrimental to the farmers, and is shown by many farm buy-backs or sell-offs.

It makes sense to use species that are naturally more resilient and able to respond to boom-and-bust cycles. Kangaroos and other species can forage on our ancient and typically nutrient-poor soils without the need for nutritional supplements (such as salt licks), and are physiologically more efficient at conserving water. This could lead to a more sustainable supply of food and income for farmers, without the dizzying economic highs but also without the inevitable prolonged and despairing lows.


To be clear, we are not suggesting completely replacing livestock, but diversifying and tailoring enterprises to better suit Australia’s environment.

To support more diverse agricultural enterprises we will need to overcome many obstacles, such as licences to hunt, what we’re comfortable consuming, and land use regulation. But we shouldn’t shy away from these challenges. There are tremendous opportunities for rural, regional and Indigenous communities, and indeed cities too.

We need a more diverse mix of meat to adapt to the pressures of a growing population and climate change. Supermarket aisles that display beef, chicken, pork and lamb, alongside kangaroo, camel, deer, goat, and insects, could be just what the environmental, health and economic doctors ordered.


The ConversationLead image by Tim Phillips / Getty Images.

Euan Ritchie, Senior Lecturer in Ecology, Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life & Environmental Sciences, Deakin University and Adam Munn, Adjunct lecturer, UNSW Australia

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Want recipe ideas?
Kangaroo rogan josh

The classic Indian curry, rogan josh, gets an Australian feel with the addition of kangaroo. But don't think it's purely a meaty affair! Chickpeas, tomato and spinach add a wholesome quality to the hearty dish. If you're running short on time, the rogan josh curry mix can be substituted with a good-quality supermarket paste. 

Slow-braised buffalo in aromatic spices

“I was surprised to see buffalo being bred in England, but I was very excited to come across it, as buffalo meat is one of the leanest and most nutritious meats available. In some countries, buffalo meat is also known as Bison. ” Luke Nguyen, Luke Nguyen's United Kingdom

Banh mi camel burger

Despite the brutish appearance of the animal, camel meat is surprisingly delicate, with a flavour similar to veal. It’s also very lean, so mixing ground meat with minced hump fat is necessary to produce a good burger patty. You could substitute fatty beef mince for this banh mi recipe instead.

Carpaccio of fallow deer with rocket, pear, fig and parmesan salad

Jeremy’s take on venison carpaccio leaves the meat raw inside, giving it a tender texture. This version of carpaccio is complimented by a fresh, simple salad. "Carpaccio is always an interesting dish to match wine with. On the one hand, you have the rich, meaty character, but, on the other, you have the delicacy of paper thin slices and the accompaniments. I think rosé is a pretty versatile option, but it’s perhaps a bit safe in this instance. You can be braver with a richer, more characterful white with a bit of texture. This adventurous blend of pinot grigio, sauvignon blanc, chardonnay and riesling from David Hook showcases elements of each variety beautifully, and there’s a lot of texture and diverse flavours, followed by cleansing apple-y acidity on the finish." - Dan Coward