Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander boys and girls born between 2015 and 2017 are expected to live 8.6 and 7.8 fewer years, respectively, than non-Indigenous children.
While the gap has lessened compared to a decade prior, Australia is not on track to close it by 2031.
Another aim to achieve a significant and sustained reduction in Indigenous suicide rates is also off track.
The suicide rate across all states and territories except Tasmania and the ACT rose from 24.9 to 27.1 per 100,000 people between 2018 and 2019.
Also failing are attempts to reduce the rate of Indigenous children in out-of-home-care by 45 per cent and adults by 15 per cent.
Children represented 56.3 per 1,000 of those in out-of-home care last year, up from 54.2 in 2019.
Over the same period, the rate of adults in the prison population rose from 2,077.4 to 2,081.1 per 100,000 to June last year.
But some aspects of Indigenous health and wellbeing are improving.
The rate of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in youth detention dropped, from 31.9 to 25.7 per 10,000, between 2018 and 2020.
Australia is expected to meet its aim of reducing the rate by at least 30 per cent within the next decade.
The proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander babies born at a healthy birthrate is also expected to reach a target of 91 per cent by 2031.
Early childhood education rates rose to 93.1 per cent last year, and were expected to reach 95 per cent by 2025.
Readers seeking support can contact Lifeline crisis support on 13 11 14, visit lifeline.org.au or find an Aboriginal Medical Service here. Resources for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders can be found at Headspace: Yarn Safe.