An annual report has again ranked Vienna as the world's 'most liveable city', ahead of Melbourne and Sydney.
Melbourne and Sydney are the world’s second and third most liveable cities, according to an annual report.
A report by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), released Wednesday, gave Austria’s capital Vienna the title of the world’s most liveable city for the second year running.
Melbourne - which held the top ranking for seven years until 2018 – was followed by Sydney, Osaka and Calgary.
Adelaide came in tenth, Perth was ranked 14th and Brisbane placed 18th.
The EIU gives cities around the world scores out of 100 on a range of factors each year such as political and economic stability, transport, crime and access to education and healthcare.
Vienna scored 99.1 points out of 100 for the second year running.
"Western Europe and North America continue to be the most liveable regions in the world," the EIU said.
For the first time, the EIU noted the effects of climate change on liveability.
New Delhi and Cairo fell to 118th and 125th place respectively due to "poor air quality, undesirable average temperatures and inadequate water provision", the EIU said.
One of the reasons for Sydney’s improvement from fifth to third is down to climate action.
"Sydney has risen … thanks to an improvement in its culture and environment score, reflecting an increased focus on combating and mitigating the impacts of climate change, as outlined by the city's 'Sustainable Sydney 2030' strategy," the EIU said.
Paris dropped six places to 25th due to the anti-government "yellow vest" protests.
Hong Kong dropped three places to 38th, but will likely be much lower next year after months of recent political unrest.
London and New York City ranked 48th and 58th respectively as they continue to struggle under the perceptions of the risk of terrorism and crime.
The least liveable cities were Karachi, Tripoli, Dhaka, Lagos and, at the very bottom, Damascus.
The war-torn Syrian capital has placed last for the past seven years.
Additional reporting: AFP.