The audience member and senator had a tense exchange on the panel show.
A Muslim woman has directly challenged One Nation leader Pauline Hanson over her views on immigration.
In a tense exchange on Monday night's episode of Q&A, the woman, believed to be called Khadija Fatima, asked Ms Hanson how she could be offended by recent comparisons in the media with Senator Fraser Anning, given her past comments on immigration.
In a controversial maiden speech earlier this month, Mr Anning appeared to praise the White Australia Policy and called for a ban on Muslim immigration. Ms Hanson said in the Senate she was "appalled" by the speech.
Ms Fatima said to Senator Hanson: "You said that you were deeply offended by the comparisons made between you and Fraser Anning after his maiden speech".
"How will you justify this when you yourself called for an immigration ban in your maiden speech, as well as stating 'we are in danger of being swamped by Asians'. And then again in 2016, you stated, 'we are in danger of being swamped by Muslims'."
"If you're both on the same page, why do you take so much offence?"
Ms Hanson told the questioner "[Mr] Fraser was calling for a White Australia Policy and I've advocated you don't have to be white to be Australian".
She said her concern was that Muslims "have a different ideology" and don't always assimilate, before detailing the global rise in Islamic terrorism.
"I will call out how I see it and a lot of other Australians see it the same way ... So I'm sorry, I'm not out to offend people, I'm here to protect Australians, that we feel safe on our streets and don't want the problems here".
Ms Fatima replied: "There are people across different religions who have different ideologies. There are people from different religions who are [committing] violence in different countries. Why just focus on Muslims every single time?"
"Our Sharia law says the first law is to follow the law of your country. Any Muslim in this room will tell you the same. I don't know where you get your beliefs from. Don't push it on all the Muslims across the world."
'I'm as much an Australian as you are, Pauline," she said, to applause from the audience.
The all-Queensland panel also featured Katter's Australian Party leader Bob Katter, who defended his colleague Mr Anning.
"If you can find anywhere in that speech where [he] advocated White Australia Policy, I'd be very curious to find out where it is," he said.
Ms Hanson also attracted a reaction from the audience after saying she did not know the connotations around the term "final solution", which Mr Anning used in his speech.
"I'm not going back to 'final solution'. I had no idea what it meant to tell you the truth. That was a 'please explain' moment," she said.
"I will say that I was appalled by him referring to White Australia Policy. We're past that. They tried to tag me with that years ago, that I was wanting a White Australia Policy."
Fellow panellist Larissa Waters, former deputy leader of the Greens, replied, "I wonder why?"